Kenya is one of the countries with a sound economic foundation in sub-Saharan Africa and the most developed country in East Africa. In recent years, Kenya's infrastructure construction has developed rapidly. Ballast stone is an important raw material for road and railway construction as well as concrete, so many customers are investing in ballast production line equipment.
This article will start from the analysis of the Kenyan building and construction materials market, the introduction to ballast, ballast production equipment introduction and selection.
Rapidly developed Kenya's infrastructure construction
Analysis of infrastructure market in Kenya
The Global Infrastructure Outlook Report released by the G20 in July 2017 stated that in order to achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Kenya would need $206 billion for infrastructure construction by 2040, which is 41% higher than current investment levels. Kenya's construction industry is driven by two main infrastructure sectors, transport and construction.
Kenya's building and construction materials market has a broad prospect, which can be analyzed from the following aspects:
Railway construction in Kenya has gradually stabilized
The Kenya railway upgrade plan has been launched as part of the Belt and Road initiative. The first phase of the project, Mombasa connecting to Nairobi, has been started in 2017; the second phase of the project, the railway connecting Nairobi and Naivasha, has been completed in 2019.
Railway construction in Kenya
But the program is not over. Over the next few years, the railway project will connect six other East African countries. President Uhuru Kenyatta believes it is critical to the "Vision 2030" to transform Kenya into a middle-income country.
Road construction in Kenya is growing vigorously
In the past decade, the Kenyan Government has spent 1 trillion shillings modernizing and building road networks in cities such as Nairobi, Mombasa, Eldoret and Kisumu. This has increased the country's road network from less than 60,000 kilometers a decade ago to more than 160,000 kilometers nowadays.
In 2019, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta signed the Kenya Road Commission (Amendment) Bill that is committed to fulfilling the government's commitment to build 10,000 kilometers of roads by 2022.
Large shopping malls and office buildings are sought after by investors
According to Kenya's 2016 economic report, the Kenyan construction industry is expected to grow at an average annual rate of 7.3% during 2015-2025, which sets a positive tone for Kenya's building materials boom.
Large shopping malls and office buildings in Kenya
The development of urbanization and the continuous expansion of the middle class have increased consumer demand in Kenya. The Kenyan people are also increasingly favoring shopping malls and other consumer places. The high demand has prompted Kenyan domestic and foreign investors to focus on the construction of large shopping malls.
Since 2012, Kenya Airways has opened several new routes to Central Africa and West Africa. With the help of transportation hubs, Kenya has attracted a large number of multinational companies including General Electric, Google, IBM and Nestle to settle in Nairobi. The office building project has gradually reached supply and demand balance from oversupply.
Ballast stone — an important source of infrastructure construction materials
Ballast stone is a building material necessary for urban and rural construction as well as major infrastructure construction, and it is also an important source of concrete and gravel aggregates. Quarries supplying ballast and gravel play a decisive role.
Characteristics of ballast stone
Ballast refers to coarse gravels used to lay road or railway subgrade. The most widely used ballast is broken rocks, preferably igneous rocks and hard limestones. Ballast has the following characteristics:
Characteristics of ballast stone
- Weather resistance and high hardness. For example, basalt, quartz stone, diabase and granite.
- The particle size meets the standard. For example, basalt super ballast shall be no less than 28mm and no more than 58mm; and the standard for first-grade ballast is 25 - 70mm.
- A sufficiently dense gradation to provide enough force to hold the sleepers in place.
- Resistance to temperature changes and water erosion.
Uses of ballast stone
Road or railway subgrade
Ballast can be used to build sidewalks and railway track beds, mainly for railway foundation beds. Its structure is to connect two steel rails with fasteners and fix them to sleepers through the rubber insulation pad, and ballast are placed under the sleepers.
The function of ballast in road or railway subgrade
- Increase the stability of the rail and prevent the track from moving. By covering the sleepers with ballast, the movement of the track can be reduced.
- Disperse the pressure of the sleepers on the roadbed. Ballast can distribute weight more evenly.
- Reduce the vibration and noise caused by trains to increase passenger comfort. The ballast, which is relatively "soft" (as opposed to rails and sleepers), can absorb the impact of steel wheels running on steel tracks.
- Enhance drainage capacity. The rain can be quickly drained through the gap between the stones. If the stones are not paved, the soil under the tracks will be soft and the tracks will sink in rainy days.
- Easy to maintain. The line can be easily corrected by raising or reducing ballast.
BuildingsAnother common use of ballast is to mix it with cement and water to make concrete for foundations, structural beams, heavy - duty flagstones, fence posts, curbs, etc. < p > Advantages of using ballast in buildings
- The ballast is hard and durable. It has corresponding requirements of its hardness, anti-wear performance, anti-impact properties, crush resistance, atmospheric corrosion resistance, water seepage performance, stability performance, etc.
- Strengthen the concrete. Filling ballast in concrete can enhance the adhesion of concrete and improve its performance.
- Cost-effective. Ballast does not need to be replaced or repaired as frequently as other materials, so its maintenance costs are low.
Specifications of ballast stone
The density of the stone is 2g per cubic centimeter. Its specifications are as follows:
|Classification and quality of the stone|
|Category Name||Variety name||
|Gravel||Extra fine gravel||5--10||About 1400--1500|
|Pebble||Extra fine pebble||5--10||About 1600--1800|
Analysis of ballast stone price
Generally speaking, the price of building stones in China is $8.5-$11.2 a ton. Due to geographical factors, the price of stone in different regions is different.
In recent years, Kenya's infrastructure and personal repairs have been in full swing, and the demand for gravel has been high. These factors indicate that the price of gravel aggregates and even that of cement will continue to rise. Investing in the production of ballast stone in Kenya is a stable and profitable business.
Kenya's infrastructure and personal repairs
In some areas of China, the demand for ballast stone is far greater than supply, and there is a skyrocketing situation. Thus, its price in these areas is much higher than that of other regions. The same situation has also occurred in Kenya, where the demand for ballast in the country has increased due to the surge in demand for aggregates.
Ballast stone production equipment
The quality requirements of ballast stone are very strict, so you need to be very careful in the selection of ballast processing equipment. What is the equipment for producing ballast? Next, we will introduce in detail.
Jaw crusher Get Latest Price
The jaw crusher, widely used in construction materials, railway, water conservancy, chemical industry, etc., is suitable for the crushing of various large materials and ores. It can be divided into small, medium and large models according to the size of the inlet. The advantages of jaw crusher are as follows:
Ballast stone jaw crusher
- 1 Solve the problems of low output and high operation rate of traditional crushers.
- 2 It can crush large materials (1000*1200mm).
- 3 Low energy consumption; In particular, it saves electricity.
- 4 The defective index is low.
Impact crusher Get Latest Price
The impact crusher can crush all kinds of coarse, medium and fine materials (granite, limestone, concrete, etc.) with feeding size no more than 500 mm and compressive strength less than 350 MPa. Its advantages are as follows:
High output and energy saving
Large feeding inlet and crushing chamber; suitable for high hardness of materials; less stone powder products;
Good particle shape
The gap between the impact plate and the hammer can be easily adjusted to effectively control the output particle size and the particle shape is good.
Ballast stone impact crusher
Compact structure; strong machine rigidity; large rotational inertia of rotor;
High comprehensive benefits
High chromium plate hammer; impact resistance; wear resistance; high impact force;
Hammer crusher Get Latest PriceThe hammer crusher is welcomed by many railway ballast stone processing plants because of its unique performance advantages.The advantages of hammer crusher mainly include the following three aspects:
- 1 Mature structure and easy operation. The internal structure of the hammer crusher is designed reasonably and its appearance is beautiful.
- 2 High crushing efficiency and strong production capacity. Fote hammer crusher has a very high crushing efficiency, which is about 3 times that of the same type.
- 3 Stable operation, energy-saving and environmental protection. Hammer crusher does not have problems such as vibration and shutdown during the process of crushing ballast stone, with low energy and no dust pollution.
Mobile crusher Get Latest Price
The mobile crusher is a crushing device with better adaptability and mobility on the market. It can easily crush the ballast stone in various regions with a high-efficiency operating state. The advantages of Fote's mobile crusher are as follows:
Ballast stone mobile crusher
- 1 Complete functions and good crushing effect. The mobile crusher can not only be combined with impact crusher, jaw crusher and others to form different crushing procedures, which can achieve high-energy crushing of railway ballast stone, but also has screening, conveying and other functions.
- 2 Flexible adaptation and easy transportation. The mobile crusher can be easily moved to various production environments such as railways and mountain roads. It has a high degree of automation, flexibility and convenience.
- 3 Large processing capacity and high crushing efficiency. The processing capacity of the mobile crusher is larger than any other crushing equipment, and the crushing efficiency is also high, which can effectively meet the production needs of large processing plants.
- 4 Energy-saving and environmental protection. The energy consumption of the mobile crusher is relatively low and the production process will not cause dust and noise pollution to the mining area.
How to select ballast production equipment?
How to choose suitable ballast processing equipment according to your own actual situation? Fote engineers give the following advice:
1 When the output is large and the production site is sufficient, the combination of jaw crusher, impact crusher and vibrating screen can be selected.
When the combination achieves mass production of ballast stone, the grain shape of the finished product is better and the output is larger.
2 When the output is average and the process requirements are simple, you can directly choose the hammer crusher and vibrating screen.
The hammer crusher has unique performance advantages that it has the advantages of beautiful grain shape, strong crushing ability, large crushing ratio and high cost-performance.
3 When the production site is small and the storage place for the ballast stone is relatively dispersed, a mobile crusher can be used to process the ballast.
The mobile crusher can be combined according to the actual situation of the user, with convenient and flexible mobile, advanced technology, and energy-saving and environmentally friendly production process. It is frequently used in many sites that require mobile crushing.
Customer case of the ballast production line in Kenya
The following data comes from a specific production line example provided by Fote for a ballast stone quarry in Kenya.
|Project Name||200T/H ballast stone crushing production line|
|Production capacity||200 t/h|
|Production line type||Fixed|
|Equipment||ZSW490*110 vibrating feeder + HD98 jaw crusher + B1000*22m belt conveyor + FTHP300 cone crusher + B1000*30 belt conveyor + 4KY2460 vibrating screen + B500*15m belt conveyor (4 sets)|
|Finished product specifications||0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40mm|
|Finished product ratio||1-5％, 5-10％, 10-20％|
|Estimated investment||$ 170000- $ 200000|
Kenya has a promising market for building materials, so the demand for ballast will increase, not decrease. Fote Heavy Machinery can provide users with all kinds of crusher models such as jaw crusher, impact crusher, cone crusher, and high-performance new-generation crushers such as mobile crushing station.
We can provide complete sets of services such as survey, design, R&D, installation and after-sales services for free to help customers complete the construction of ballast stone production lines in a shorter time and a more economical way to ensure the operation of equipment!