There are different types of stone crushers in mining industry such as jaw crusher, cone crusher, impact crusher, and sand making machine. This article will tell you how to maintain the 4 types of rock crushers and how to efficicently improve their performance.
How to make your crushers efficiency
Many stone crusher operators have a common coception that is "don't-fix-it-if-it-isn't-broke". They may want to save cost at the begining while the consequence is that they have to spend more money on repair and face interuption on production. That's why I always say that preventive and predictive is very important for all types of stone crusher.
Why are preventive and predictive crucial to crusher maintenance?
Preventive means that by making regular checklist and inspections to keep crushers in good condition. Maintenance checklist is usually set up on a daily (8 hours), weekly (40 hours), monthly (200 hours), yearly (2,000 hours). Only doing that, can you prolong the machine's life span and maximize its value in crushing process.
Predictive refers to mornitoring the condition of crusher when it is running. By some maintenance tools such as lubricating oil temperature sensors, lubricating oil filter condition indicator, you can timely draw the machine data so that making a comparison between the real situation and normal state. Predictive can help you find problem early then timely removing thers issues before demage occuring.
The most effective maintenance skills for different stone crushers
If you have missed the first two stages of preventive and predictive, don't worry, the reactive also works.
Ractive means that even if your crushers have got problems, as long as you adopt correct solutions to respond, you still can get your machine back to normal. Next, I'll introduce important skills to maintain your equipment.
Common problems you would face when operating a jaw crusher
- 1Premature bearing failures. That's because you haven't make a regular cleaning in the oil chamber which is full of dust and fines. If bearing cannot get efficient lubrication, it is liable to got broken, and interupt the production at least 1 hour. To protect bearing, you have to inspect to see whether the breather is knocked off, and clean the oil chamber to gurantee enough oil for bearing.
- 2Jaw crusher parts especially jaw plates wear badly. Materials that need be crushed is irregular and with different hardness, so it will bring constant friction and stress to the jaw plates. At the same time, moveable jaw moves up and down in vertical direction, which leads to stronger friction between material and jaw plates thus damaging the surface of the jaw plates.
Although spare parts wear replacement is inevitable, you can prolong its life span by doing regular maintenance.
For example, for jaw plates,
- You can check whether the tooth peak to tooth valley is match with each other, if not, make them match.
- Keep bolt and nuts tight.
- Do not wait to maintain jaw plates until it appears flat, hole, crack.
How to replace Jaw crusher plates?
Other ways to protect your jaw crusher parts
- Replaced jaw plate with more than 12% manganese (ZGMn13) can greatly increase the service life of the jaw plate.
- You can install a spring anti-loosening and vibration reduction device to prolong the service life of the crushing plate.
- Throttling feed can maximize the production capacity and ensure that the particles are evenly crushed so that there are little needle and block materials in the stone-to-stone process.
The cone crusher in the secondary or tertiary crushing proccess often fractures medium-hard or hard rocks like pebble, quartz, granite, etc. It is easy to get premature crusher failure, if operators cannot make a correct and timely inspection and maintenance.
6 Tips to help you prolong the concrusher's service life:
- 1You must operate at a consistent closed-side discharged setting(css). It can effectively tackle problems caused by over-sized material and maintain producing high-quality, even final products.
- 2"Choke fed" cavity level is necessary. That means no matter what the cavity level is too low or too high has the worst impact on your final products. If the cavity level is too low, the final product will become coarser, flatter and more elongated.
- 3Avoid trickle feed the crusher. Trickle feed would reduce your production, productivity, and value of end products. So you have to keep rated horsepower at 40%-100%, and between 75%-95% is optimal.
- 4Lubricate your machine regularly. Lubricate important parts like mainshaft, bearings, mantle and concave can make the whole production smooth and minimize the downtime.
- 5Clean your oil tank if it is contaminated.
- 6Remove the fines or sticky material in the crushing chamber.
Mantale and concave
Mantle (movable cone) and concave (fixed cone)
Mantle in moveable cone and concave is fixed cone. Due to directly contacting with rock materials, the two wear parts need frequent maintenance and protection. So operators have to know the preparations and maintaining skills.
|Cone crusher repair tools list|
|PROPANE TORCH||GRINDER C/W SANDING PAD|
|LIFTING SHACKLES W/HOOK||FLINT SPARK LIGHTER|
|48 MM 3/4"SOCKET||19MM 1/2"SOCKET|
|1/2"EXTENSION||HEAD LIFTING TOOL|
|LIFTING STRAPS||ABRASIVE HAND PADI|
|FEELER GAUGE||LOCTITE 243|
Horizontal Shaft Impact crusher (HSI)
Impact crusher working animation
The working principle of impact crusher is that the spinning rotor under the driving of the motor can genetate strong impact force which make blow bars crush stone material into small pieces. Then the crushed material would be thrown by hammers towards, which makes another crushing process "stone to stone".
During the whole process, the parts which wear easily are hammers (blow bars), rotor, aprons, alloy steel liners.
The main causes of hammer damage
- Failure to maintain and inspect crushers every eight hours
- Continously work for a long time causes the hammers loose and wear fast.
- Too much contamination in the oil tank, which leads to oil leakage and machine shut down.
- Continously work for a long time causes the hammers loose and wear fast.
- V-belt appers loosen and broken.
- The rotor specification does not mach the crushing stage. For example, if a horizontal shaft impact crusher is used in primary crushing, the rotor should be solid because the inertia is relatively large, vice versa.
How to deal with these damages
- After the new machine is put into operation, a comprehensive inspection of the impact crusher must be carried out at the end of each shift.
- The inspection of the motor and the lubrication should perform after each week of operation which includes the looseness of the fixed parts, the belt drive, the bearing seal, and the wear of the impact lining plate and liner.
- Regular maintenance and replacement system should be established.
- Adjust of the gap between the rotor and blow bar to the optimal position.
- The regular maintenance and repair include adjustment of the gap between the rotor of the impact crusher and the impact lining plate, replacement of wearing parts, regular inspection of the hammer, lining plate, bearing temperature, etc.
- Replace badly wearing parts in time.
- Regularly inspect temperature of the rotor, motor and bearing, etc.
Sanding making machine
Sand making machine
The sand making machine is also known as the vertical shaft impact crusher. Its working mode is that the material falls vertically from the upper part of the machine into the high-speed rotating impeller. The impeller is one of the important parts of the sand making machine, and it is also the most vulnerable part.
What are the causes of impeller damage?
- The feeding is not uniform and continuous, and the material size does not comply with the equipment requirement, which means that the materials with too large particles will cause the imbalance of the impeller, resulting in wear.
- Still feeding the machine when the main shaft has stopped, which causes the impeller to be crushed and damaged directly.
After the materials collide with each other, they will be pulverized and smashed between the impeller for multiple times and discharged from the lower part. The materials crushed by the device have an excellent particle size and are suitable for aggregate shaping, artificial sand making and highway construction.
The main causes of rotor damage
- The steel used for sand making equipment is not refined, and has a large number of defects in smelting; Improper raw materials result in poor material performance and bad wear resistance of rotor.
- The rotor of sand making equipment will be easily worn without long-term lubrication, resulting in the sanding equipment installation being abolished.
How to protect the rotors?
- Improve the balance accuracy of the rotor: The casting deviation of the rotor and other deviation caused by the installation of the plate hammer will cause unbalanced centrifugal force when the rotor rotates.
- Choose a proper match: the main bearing of the sand maker rotor is the impact load. The magnitude of the load on the rolling body is different, so, we recommend F8 or E8 for the cooperation between the outer ring and the bearing housing.
- Improve the bearing's stress: You should add a rubber plate of appropriate thickness between the bearing housing and the support frame to improve the support flexibility of the bearing housing. Due to the addition of a rubber plate, it will absorb part of the vibration energy so that it improves bearing's stress, and extending the service life.
Efficiency you will get
- If you improve the contact area between the sand making machine and the materials, you improve the crushing efficiency.
- After regular lubrication, the service life and running speed of the equipment are enhanced.
- Regularly check the wear of the impeller device to protect the impeller and improve the stability.
- Perform a balance experiment on the rotor to greatly improve the balance accuracy.
How to deal with the damages
- Regularly pause and observe the internal wear of the center feeding pipe, cone cap, the lining plate in the upper and lower impeller, the circumferential guard plate and wear block. If they are worn, replacement and repair should be conducted immediately. Note: It is forbidden to open the observation door in the working process to avoid danger.
- When the sand making machine is working for 400 hours, it should be added with the proper amount of grease. When the work time reaches 2000 hours, the spindle assembly should be opened to clean the bearing. If it is working until 7200 hours, the bearings must be replaced with new ones.
- The tension of the transmission triangle tape should be adjusted appropriately so that the length of each group is as uniform as possible.
Different Maintenance methods when running different times
4 Best stone manufacturers
With the increase in the demand for mining machinery, mining machinery manufacturers and the product categories has developed faster and faster.
In the face of such a dazzling market, how to choose the production equipment suitable for users' actual needs among the numerous equipment brands of many machinery manufacturers is a big problem for many large and small enterprises. Here we list top 4 world's construction equipment manufacturers for you to choose:
Suitable for very large mining sites but with relatively high prices
- Metso (Finland) It is a comprehensive industrial equipment company dedicated to providing equipment, technology and services for mining, aggregates, oil and gas, recycling, etc.
- Sandvik (Sweden) High-tech multinational engineering group, Sandvik is committed to providing metal cutting, mining equipment, tools and services for construction industries.
Suitable for medium-sized mining sites, with good equipment quality, economical price and high cost performance
- FTM Machinery (China) Fote Heavy Machinery (FTM) is an advanced mining equipment manufacturer with a wide range of equipment, high quality, reasonable price and good reputation overseas.
- Terex (United States) Committed to construction, infrastructure, manufacturing, shipping, transportation, refining, energy, utilities, quarrying and mining.
Factory of Fote Heavy Machinery (FTM)