1. Home >
  2. Blog >
  3. Blog details

Artificial Sand - What Is It and How to Make It

Author : Jordan | Last Updated :

Nowadays, natural sand is running out by the huge demand. The natural sand resources formed by hundreds of thousands of years in many countries and regions are almost exhausted.

As a result, natural sand costs are getting higher and higher and cannot meet the increasing market demand. In this case, the artificial sand came into being.

In this article, we will introduce:

What is artificial sand?

Artificial sand, also called crushed sand or mechanical sand, refers to rocks, mine tailings or industrial waste granules with a particle size of less than 4.75 mm, which are processed by mechanical crushing and sieving, but does not include soft and weathered granules.

In China, the artificial sand was firstly used in the construction of hydropower systems. For example, the Three Gorges Project and the Yellow River Xiaolangdi Project used artificial sand to prepare concrete. Due to the remote environment of the hydropower project and the high quality of sand and gravel, the projects have taken the materials locally.

Many Indian states have decreed the use of crushed sand in infrastructure construction because of its high compressive strength and cohesion and the adverse environmental effects of river sand mining, which will greatly boost the demand for artificial sand.

Artificial sand which is less than 4.75 mm

Artificial sand

The factors that promote the development of artificial sand

There are both natural and human factors in the increasing demand for artificial sand. The former is that the natural sand is about to run out, while human factors include people's requirements for environmental protection and the need for high-quality concrete.

1. Natural sand depletion

With the development of infrastructure, the natural sand resources formed by hundreds of thousands of years in many countries and regions have been almost exhausted, which has affected the further development of construction projects.

2. The need for energy saving and environmental protection

Reason 1: River sand mining causes river pollution.

Driven by huge interests, natural sand has been indiscriminately mining, which changes the river course, affects the safety of river embankments, destroys the living environment of fish and contaminates the groundwater. The crushed stone sand is an important alternative resource to change this phenomenon.

Reason 2: River sand mining causes tailings.

In the process of mining river sand, it often produces a large amount of tailings which is not used reasonably. Especially in small mines, the tailings are piled up at random, occupying land and polluting the environment.

Reason 3: A lot of construction waste is wasted.

Besides, in urban planning and construction, a large amount of construction waste is generated, which actually can be crushed by the crushers to produce the artificial sand and aggregates for promoting resource utilization.

3. The need for the development of high-performance concrete technology

With the rapid development of concrete technology, the comprehensive performance of high-performance concrete and high-strength structural concrete has higher requirements on the quality of aggregates, requiring it with stable quality, good gradation and shape, while less and less natural sand meets the requirements. Therefore, people are turning their focus on artificial sand.

Artificial sand and mixed sand are mainly used in building construction, municipal construction, transportation, and other projects whose concrete strength grade is below C60. When meeting the corresponding technical requirements, they can also be used for concrete projects such as ports and water conservancy.

Application requirements of mixed sand

Concrete strength grade Mixed sand fineness modulus
C60 The fineness modulus of the mixed sand shall not be less than 2.3, and the fineness modulus of the ultra-fine sand shall not be less than 1.1.
C45-C55 The mixed sand fineness modulus is not less than 1.8, and the ultra-fine sand fineness modulus is not less than 0.9.
C60 or more The mixed sand should pass through the test to obtain reliable data and can be used after it has been demonstrated that the performance requirements are met the requirement.

Comparison of artificial sand and natural sand

Comparison between artificial sand and natural sand

Comparison between artificial sand and natural sand

  1. 1 Quality advantage: The source of sand resources is stable; mechanized production mode ensures an adjustable and controllable quality.
  2. 2 Grade advantage: artificial sand has high surface energy and hydrophilicity; it has complete gradation; the particle gradation is stable and adjustable; the grain shape can be improved.
  3. 3 Management advantages: There are stable legal entities, mining licenses, fixed business locations, which is easy to trace.
  4. 4 Resource advantages: In addition to mines, various waste resources such as tailings and construction waste can be utilized.
  5. Properties of artificial sand vs river sand
Types Artificial sand River sand
Shape Cubical Spherical
Ability to hold surface moisture 10% 7%
Compressive strength Higher Lower
Flexural strength Higher Lower
Impurity Less More (seaweed, bones, shells, mica and silt, etc.)
Grade Can be controlled Cannot be controlled

The table below shows the mix ratio of M15 M55 and M55 M55 concrete designed for artificial sand and river sand. The results show that in the same Concrete Mix Design, the strength of concrete by artificial sand is higher.

Types M15 M55 Concrete M55 M55 Concrete
Artificial sand River sand Artificial sand River sand
Cement one bag 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg 50 kg
Sand 125 kg 135 kg 70 kg 75 kg
Agg. 20 mm 137 kg 135 kg 80 kg 75 kg
Agg. 12 mm 75 kg 67.5 kg 35 kg 37.5 kg
Water 27.5 Ltrs 27.5 Ltrs 19 ltrs 19 ltrs
Strength after 7 days curing 186.67 kg per Sq.cm 174.81 kg per Sq.cm 468.14 kg per Sq.cm 441 kg per Sq.cm

How is the global sand and gravel aggregate market performing?

As the demand for aggregates from China, Africa, Latin America, Europe,etc. will continue to rise, and the price of artificial sand will also increase, the outlook for the global aggregate market for sand and gravel is worth looking forward to.

1. China is still the country with the largest demand for aggregates

According to the Global Sandstone Aggregate report, by 2020, the demand for aggregates of sand and gravel in the Asia-Pacific region will increase the fastest in the world, and the growth rate of India, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and other regions will be among the best.

Due to the economic transformation, the demand for sand and gravel aggregates in China will slow down. However, the report predicts that by 2020, China will still be the world's largest aggregate demander, accounting for almost half of the world's total aggregate.

China-the country with the largest aggregates demand

China—the country with the largest aggregates demand

2. Forecast of sand and gravel aggregates market around the world

  • Africa and the Middle East: Demand for aggregates will grow faster than the global average;
  • Latin America: Many government-supported affordable housing projects will boost the construction industry and sand and gravel aggregate demand in the region;
  • North American: The upgrade of construction industry will be beneficial to the sales of local aggregates;
  • Western Europe: The sand and aggregate industry will usher in a new round of growth after a long period of decline, which is good news for sand and gravel suppliers in the region;
  • Eastern Europe: The situation of construction industry will also warm up.

Therefore, the global sand and gravel aggregate market has bright prospects and is suitable for investment.

3. The price of artificial sand and recycled aggregate will increase

In the coming period, the use of recycled aggregates and artificial sand derived from waste concrete and slag will increase at twice the rate of natural sand.

increasing use of artificial sand

increasing use of artificial sand

The Global Sandstone Aggregate report shows that the reserves of natural sand are gradually decreasing globally, and in some developing countries where the demand for aggregates and sand is huge, illegal sand mining has happened frequently. According to the report, by 2020, the reserves of natural sand resources in some countries will be quickly depleted.

The depletion of natural sand resources will lead to a sharp increase in the price of aggregates and artificial sand, especially in areas where the demand for aggregates is huge. It can be seen that the profit margin of the artificial sand is very large.

Artificial sand production process

With the decreasing of natural sand, the crushed rock sand market has shown great potential and vitality. The huge demand in the construction market has promoted the rapid development of the sand and gravel market.

With the improvement of infrastructure, the visionary investors catch the business opportunity and want to open a small and medium-sized sand production line. Then, how should the artificial sand production line be configured?

Usually, the complete set for small and medium-sized sand production line includes feeders, jaw crushers, sand making machines, vibrating screens and belt conveyors. The output is generally selected at around tens of tons per hour, and its investment is not large enough to be accepted by most individual investors.

At the same time, based on our customer production experiences, the small and medium-sized sand production line can start to benefit as long as it is operated for two months.

sand production line

Sand production line

1. Sand production line configuration principle

The stone production line mainly uses a series of stone crushing equipment to crush the stone and produce artificial sandstone. Though different production line equipment configurations are different, there are two basic guidelines to follow when configuring:

Guideline 1: Understanding material characteristics and requirements.

Before configuring the gravel production line, it is necessary to clarify the properties of the material, such as hardness and size.

And according to the materials, production requirements, and requirements for the particle size of the finished product, consider the configuration of the crusher and sand making machine. In addition to satisfying the output, the selection of the crushing and sand making equipment should also consider the size of the feeding inlet.

Guideline 2: Understanding your own economic strength.

There is a saying goes: the economic base determines the superstructure. So when configuring the sand and gravel production line, you must choose different production lines according to your investment strength. Don't buy it blindly, and the best is the one which is suitable for you.

2. Detailed description of the process of the sand production line

The process of crushed sand can be divided into the following three steps:

  1. 1The first step, feeding
  2. The stone blasted from the mountain is sent to the vibrating feeder through the dump truck.
  3. 2The second step, coarse and fine crushing
  4. The vibrating feeder sends the stone uniformly into the jaw crusher for the first crushing which is also the coarse crushing. And then the crushed material is transported by the belt conveyor to the cone crusher or the impact crusher for the secondary crushing which is also the fine crushing.
  5. 3The third step, sand making and screening
  6. The finely divided materials are sent to the sand making machine for fine crushing by the belt conveyor, and then are sieved through the vibrating screening to separate materials of different sizes.

Generally, the production line can be completed by the above three steps, but if there have strict requirements for the sand powder containing, the sand washing machine can be added after the fine crushing.

The steps of sand making

The steps of sand making

3. Artificial sand production line - taking cobblestone as an example

Characteristics of cobblestone: The main component of cobblestone is silica, which has the advantages of innocuity and strong corrosion resistance. It is the main material for the production of artificial sandstone and also green building material.

Cobblestone sand production line configuration: a cobblestone sand production line with a capacity of 50-70 tons per hour: feeder + fine jaw crusher 2 sets + sand making machine + vibrating screen + sand washing machine + fine sand recycling machine + belt conveyor machine.

The cobblestone sand production line

The cobblestone sand production line


According to the above analysis, the artificial sand has many advantages and is hugely demanded, so it has become an indispensable main source of the global sandstone industry.

Besides, according to the data of Global Sandstone Aggregates, the artificial sand has limitless development space and broad investment prospects, which can bring huge benefits to investors.

In addition, investors should choose equipment and manufacturers according to their own needs when building a new crushed sand production line.

FTM sand making manufacturer

FTM sand making manufacturer

author head images
Author : Jordan Jordan is the writer of the blog with a broad knowledge of this industry. Most importantly, he hopes to help you in your projects sincerely.


As a leading mining machinery manufacturer and exporter in China, we are always here to provide you with high quality products and better services. Welcome to contact us through one of the following ways or visit our company and factories.

  • Contact us for free to get a quote
  • Contact us for more detailed information on the product
  • Contact us for a free custom production line

Your email will only for contact and not be shared with any third parties.

  • Product Name
  • Name
  • Email*
  • Phone or Whatsapp
  • Please enter the material to be processed, expected capacity,feeding size (mm), final product size (mm), or other requirements.

Fote is a manufacturer of high-end mining machinery in Asia.

FTM Machinery-Green Intelligent Mining Machine Manufacturing and Exporting Base

Based on the high quality and complete after-sales service, our products have been exported to more than 120 countries and regions. Fote Machinery has been the choice of more than 200,000 customers.